Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) continues its flow monitoring implementation to collect data on migration flows observed across The Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia, and Djibouti) and Yemen.
Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) allow DTM to quantify and qualify migration flows, trends, and routes, at transit points (such as border crossing posts, bus stations, rest areas, police checkpoints and reception centres).
Historically, migrants in the Horn of Africa have primarily moved along three routes: the Eastern route through Yemen, the Middle East and beyond; the Northern route through Sudan, and either through Libya and on to Europe (Central Mediterranean Route) or through Egypt to Israel (Sinai Route); and the Southern route through Kenya, Tanzania and further onwards to South Africa. Besides these routes, a very significant portion of the movements takes place within the Region.
Data Source:DTM Flow Monitoring Register(FMR)
Flows observed at FMPs between January and December 2018
The map below shows that 54 per cent most of the movements observed at the Flow Monitoring Points were within the Horn of Africa and neighbouring countries such as Sudan and Kenya. On the other hand, the largest movements outside the region were directed towards the Arabian Peninsula (36%) with Saudi Arabia being the main intended destination.
As the map above shows, movements coming into HoA from the Arabian Peninsula were modest
when compared to those going in the opposite direction
. The largest movement observed from the Arabian Peninsula towards HoA (10,691 movements) originated from Yemen towards Somalia as the destination.
Most of the migrants who intended to travel to the Arabian Peninsula were Ethiopian nationals, traveling through Djibouti to reach Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries.
According to a sample of over 15,000 respondents , the drivers of migration in the HoA show different trends when compared to the responses of those moving along the eastern, northern or southern routes. While most of the movements outside the HoA were motivated by economic reasons, intra-regional migration within HoA was driven by a combination of different factors.
On the same survey, respondents were asked the reasons why they specifically chose a given destination country. For those traveling outside the Horn of Africa, the pursuit of job opportunities was the main reason. On the other hand, movements within The Horn of Africa were characterized by a broad variety of reasons.
Of the respondents, 57 per cent reported difficulties from the beginning of the journey . Migrants traveling towards the HoA reported substantially more difficulties than those traveling along the Northern, Southern and Eastern routes. Overall, the main challenges reported during the journeys were 'hunger and thirst' followed by 'sickness' and 'financial issues'.
The data collected across 40 flow monitoring points (FMPs) shows that movements along the Eastern route — mainly Ethiopian nationals — represent a significant portion (37.76 %) of the total. Movements within the HoA (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti) represents 52.41 per cent of the total movements. Migrants traveling along the Northern Route (3.93%) and Southern Route (5.70%) account for about 10 per cent of the total movements.
|HoA (Inside The Horn of Africa)||437,432||52.41%|
93,091 migrants coming from the HoA were observed in southern Yemen in 2018 , positioning the Eastern Route as one of the busiest maritime migration routes in the world.
The reasons for migration in the region (HoA) were significantly different from those observed on the other routes. While drivers of migration inside the HoA are mixed, movements along the Eastern, Southern and Northern routes were mainly driven by economic reasons (90%). Migrants moving inside the HoA reported notably more difficulties than those moving along the other routes. The main challenges faced en route were 'hunger and thirst', 'sickness' and 'financial issues'.